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Christmas flower cultivation techniques

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Update time : 2017-09-22 11:29:18
Poinsettia, also known as Christmas flowers, Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia plants. Poinsettia winter season tender and beautiful red bracts, especially attractive, also known as the Mexican red leaves. Origin in the open field can grow into 3 to 4 meters high shrubs, spend a red Yan, become an important landscape in winter. At present, in Europe and the United States, Japan has become an important production of commercial production of potted flowers.

Poinsettia in Europe and the United States cultivation time earlier. 1915 years has been cultivated leaves of poinsettia, 1926 breeding bloody bloody Miss Paul Ecker (195.) cultivated bracts curly ball of poinsettia (PlenissimaEcke'sFlamingSpHere), in 1967 to cultivate triploid Variety of Exeter British C-1 (EckespointC-1). So far, new varieties continue to market, a poinsettia in Europe and the United States market enduring. At present, the United States Ogils than plant companies, Germany's Fische Gmbh (FischerGmbh) company and the Selai Kelai Kelim company, Israel's Agrakeke Agricultural Center, the Netherlands, the door Fan And Danish Danite (DanE-lite) companies, are the main production of magenta large professional companies, their products are not only the domestic brand, many of the world's brand-name products. Which in the United States the largest production, in 1997 the United States accounted for 25% of the total amount of potted plants in the United States, accounting for 32% of the output value ($ 701 million), reaching $ 224 million, the first potted plants. In Japan, in 1993 the production of poinsettia 460 million pots, the output value of 18 million US dollars, the potted plant value of the tenth. In Europe, the Netherlands in 1995 a product value of 19 million US non-product, the tenth, in Denmark, the United Kingdom and Germany produced a magenta, the output value are in the top ten. Can be seen, poinsettia in the international flower market occupies a very important position.


【Morphological characteristics and varieties】 Poinsettia is evergreen shrub. Stems upright with milk. Leaves alternate, ovate-elliptic, lower leaves green, upper leafy bracts, red. Inflorescence terminal. Common varieties are a white (Ecke'sWhite), bracts milky white. A flour (Rosea), bracts pink. Lutea (Lutea), bracts pale yellow. Crimson Cranberries (AnnetteHegg), bracts crimson. Triploid Euphorbiaceae (Eckespointc-1), bracts foliage, bright red. Platonicus (Plenissima), leaf gray green, bracts red, heavy flap. Henrietta Ecke (Henrietta Ecke), bracts bright red, double flap, outer bracts flattened, inner bracts erect, very beautiful. Globular poinsettia (PlenissimaEcke'sFlamingSphere), bracts blood red, double, bracts curled up and down spherical, slow growth. Leaf varicose (Variegata), leaves light gray green, with white markings, bracts bright red. Miss Paul Ecker, leaf width, foliage, bracts blood red. In recent years, new varieties of the market are festive red (FestivalRed), dwarf, bracts large, bright red. PetoRed, bracts broad, dark red. Victory Red (SuccessRed), leaf-like, bracts red. Orange Rillet (OrangeRedLilo), bracts large, orange-red. Pearl (Pearl), bracts yellow and white. Pichacho (Pichacho), dwarf species, dark green leaves, bracts dark red, without hormone treatment.

【Biological characteristics】 vindictive origin of Mexico. Hi warm, moist and sunny environment.

Poinsettia growth temperature is 18 ~ 25 ℃, 4 ~ September for 18 ~ 24 ℃, September to April the following year for the 13 ~ 16 ℃. Winter temperature of not less than 10 ℃, otherwise it will cause bracts pan blue, the base leaves easily yellow off, forming a "off the foot" phenomenon. When the spring temperature rises, from the stem can continue to bud out the branches.

Poinsettia is more sensitive to the reaction of water, the growth period as long as the water supply is sufficient, rapid growth of stems and leaves, sometimes intermittent elongation, leaf stenosis of the leggy phenomenon. On the contrary, the basin soil moisture or dry when dry, will cause leaves off. Therefore, the control of water is directly related to the growth and development of poinsettia.

Poinsettia is a short daylight plant. Stem and leaf growth in the need for adequate sunlight, to promote the rapid growth of stem and leaf. To make the bracts ahead of the red, the daily control of light within 12 hours to promote flower bud differentiation. Such as daily light 9 hours, 5 weeks after the bracts can turn red.

The soil to loose fertile, well-drained sandy loam as well. Potted soil to cultivate soil, rot leaf soil and sand mixed soil is better.

[Breeding methods] commonly used cutting and tissue culture.

Cutting propagation: 4 to 5 months s elected healthy branches last year, 10 cm long, cut, wash the incision out of the milk, after drying cutting, at room temperature 25 ℃ conditions, inserted after each 4 to 18 days healing rooting. Such as 0.1% to 0.3% indole butyric acid powder treatment of cuttings, rooting fast and root developed.

Tissue culture: the current use of flower axis, stem top for the explants, after routine disinfection, inoculated in the addition of 6-benzylaminoadenine 0.2 mg / liter and indole acetic acid 0.2 mg / l MS medium , And the adventitious buds were transferred to 1 / 2MS medium supplemented with indole acetic acid 0.2 mg / liter for about 45 to 50 days, and the plants were rooted at about 10 to 14 days to form small plants.

[Cultivation and management] potted poinsettia commonly used 15 cm pots. Growing every half of fertilization 1 or "Friends of the" 17-5-19 paparic special fertilizer. To control the plant height, commonly used truncated, curved plate and growth inhibitors and other methods.

Truncated: the growth process truncated twice, the first in late June, the second in mid-August. The height of the truncation depends on the need.

Qu Zhi Pan head: May, each stay 3 to 4 branches. With the stem of the elongation, with fine bamboo frame for the banding, to the bracts when the color to stop. Curved branches to be timely, or branches easily broken, affecting the state.

Growth inhibitors: commonly used for a long time or chlormequatum sprayed leaves or into the basin. When the topping after the axillary buds grow to 4 to 5 cm high, with 0.5% more than a long time spray solution foliage or 0.3% chlormequat into the soil, so that the effect of dwarfing of poinsettia obvious. In the cultivation process, strict control of nitrogen fertilizer, to avoid stems and leaves long, the soil to slightly acidic, and add appropriate amount of calcium, magnesium fertilizer, so that red bracts more vivid.

[Pest control] occurs mainly leaf spot, gray mold and stem rot, available 70% methyl thiophanate wettable powder 1000 times spray. Pests have scale insects, whitefly harm, available 40% omethoate EC 1000 times spray to kill.

[Postpartum treatment] temporary winter season when the unique poinsettia unique blooming red bracts when the tempting. With its potted or hanging pot decorated public places of the indoor environment, suddenly full of brilliance, showing a warm, happy atmosphere. Pots decorated with windowsill, balcony or study, shop red show Tsui, charming and moving. A poinsettia in the storage and transportation process, sensitive to hot and cold wind blowing, ethylene can cause wilting plants should be sprayed with silver thiosulfate solution (concentration of 0.3 to 0.8 mmol). At the same time, in the storage and transportation process, the poinsettia bracts and leaves appear upward bending phenomenon, mainly due to the accumulation of ethylene damage. At 10 ℃ under the conditions of packaging and storage to unlock the packaging does not exceed 48 hours, less than 10 ℃ will occur frost damage, higher than 10 ℃ caused by the petiole upward bending and bracts off.

Poinsettia breed method

One, the magenta's ecological habits

Hi warm, moist and plenty of light. Intolerant low temperature, typical of short sunshine plants. Direct light and lack of light are not conducive to its growth. Bogey water, to keep the pots of soil can be wet. Short daylight treatment can flow ahead of time. Yipin Hongxi wet and sunny environment, to the light strong, the soil is not strict, but slightly acidic type of fertile, humid, well drained sandy loam is the best. Cold resistance is weak, East China, North China greenhouse cultivation, must be moved into the greenhouse before frost, otherwise the temperature is low, easy yellow leaves, leaves and so on. Winter room temperature can not be less than 5 ℃, 16-18 ℃ is appropriate. Strict requirements on the water, the soil is too wet, easily lead to root rot, leaves, etc., a product is extremely easy to fall leaves, the temperature is too high, the soil is too dry or too light or too weak will cause leaves.

Second, a poinsettia breeding technology

Poinsettia using hardwood or shoots cutting propagation.

1, hardwood cuttings in the spring 3 to 5 months, cut annual lignin or semi-lignified branches, about 10 cm, for cuttings; cut off the leaves on the cuttings, incision dipped in vegetation ash, to be dry after the incision Fine sand, the depth of about 5 cm, full irrigation, and keep the temperature at 22 ~ 24 ℃, about a month or so rooting.

2, twigs cutting is select ed when the birth of fresh strips to 6 to 8 leaves, take 6 to 8 cm long, with 3 to 4 sections of a tender tip, cut in the section under the cut, remove the base of the big leaves, Immediately put in the water to prevent the milk outflow, and then cutting, and keep the substrate wet, about 20 days can take root.

Three, a poinsettia conservation points

1, the preparation of soil cultivation

Euphorbia hi loose, well-drained soil, generally with vegetable soil 3, 3 humus soil, rot leaf soil 3, decomposed cake fertilizer 1, add a small amount of slag mixed use.

2, temperature

Yipin red hi warm and cold. Every year in late September into the room, to strengthen the ventilation, so that plants gradually adapt to the indoor environment, winter room temperature should be maintained at 15 ℃ to 20 ℃. At this time when the bract color and flower bud differentiation period, if the room temperature below 15 ℃ below, then the flowers and leaves dysplasia. To mid-December into the flowering stage, to gradually ventilation.

3, light

Yipin Hongxi light enough to light, is a short sunshine plants. All year round should be sufficient light, bracts discoloration and flower bud differentiation, flowering period is even more important. Such as lack of light, branches easy to trace, susceptible to disease, color bleak, long placed in the shade, not blossom, the winter will fall leaves. In order to advance or delay flowering, can control the light, usually given 8 to 9 hours a day of light, 40 days can flowering.

4, fertilization

Yipin Hongxi fertile sandy soil. In addition to the upper basin, potting, adding organic fertilizer and horseshoe tablets for basal, in the growth of the flowering season, every 10 to 15 days to apply a dilution of 5 times fully decomposed sesame residue liquid fertilizer. After the fall, can also be used 0.3% of the compound fertilizer, once a week, for 3 to 4 times to promote bract color and flower bud differentiation.

5, watering: According to the weather, basin soil and plant growth to master the situation, generally watering to keep the basin soil moist and not water for the degree, but after the flow to reduce the watering.

6, pruning: the main pruning some of the old roots, diseased weak branches, the general pruning time for the late June, mid August. In the cultivation should control the big water, especially before the fall of the plant stereotypes. To be 20 to 30 cm long when the beginning of plastic for bending, the purpose is to make the shape of small, flower head neatly, evenly distributed, improve the ornamental.

Four, a poinsettia pest control

1, disease

Mainly fungi caused by stem rot, gray mold and bacteria caused by leaf spot disease, in addition to regular spraying fungicides, but also in the greenhouse to do a good job ventilation, reduce humidity and other auxiliary work to reduce pathogens, tools Should be timely disinfection, to prevent cross-infection, and timely clean up the disease, reduce the source of infection. Winter can use sulfur fumigants or sulfur-containing smoke bombs to kill fungal spores in the air.

2 pests

The most common are whitefly, you can use pesticides to spray or irrigation can be. The use of whitefly's phototaxis, placed in the greenhouse coated with oil yellow sticky insect board, can be trapped. Also pay attention to whitefly in the back of the young leaves in the general diet of juice, and light color leaves more likely to cause the damage of whitefly.

Poinsettia cultivation techniques


First, a pest red cultivation process

1. seed purchase

To buy high quality, healthy seedlings.

2. Preparation before planting

The growers are clean and disinfected in the cultivation site three days before the seedling, and the pots and the culture medium are ready to be put into the basin, and the dressing is tidied, and the fungicides such as Reidomir, Wait.

3. Planting

After planting seedlings, if not immediately planted, then pour a small amount of water to prevent wilting, and then began planting. With two fingers in the middle of the basin to dig a hole, and then planted into the species, do not grow too deep, the standard to cover the seedlings after 1 cm deep appropriate, poured on the amount of pharmaceutical. The previous week shade, light intensity at 20000-25000 lux.

4. After the management of colonization

Create a suitable environment for its growth, so that the root healthy and rapid growth. Keep 28-30 ℃ daily temperature, night temperature 23 ℃, timely spray or sprinkler in the room to increase humidity for two weeks, then gradually reduce the temperature and reduce the humidity, as appropriate, to the appropriate liquid fertilizer irrigation or spraying foliage Fertilizer, and dwarfing agent for dwarfing treatment.

Topping

After 3 weeks of planting, the root has been grown, then topping, topping when leaving 4-6 leaf section, the temperature increased to 28-30 ℃ day temperature, night temperature 23 ℃, often spray to increase humidity, for about two weeks , See the buds grow, and then slowly reduce the temperature, 25-28 ℃ during the day, the humidity should be reduced, this period can be based on the plant uniformity, fullness, the second topping, supplement the nutrients, combined with dwarf agent treatment The

6. Height control

There are two factors that affect the height of a magenta, one is the application of dwarfing agents, and the other is environmental factors.

At present, our most commonly used dwarfing agents are CCC, B9 and PP333. CCC is usually suitable for use at concentrations of 1000-2000 ppm, whole plant spray. Usually sprayed once 10 days before topping, after 15 days and then spray once again. B9 is usually mixed with CCC, CCC concentration of 500-1000ppm, B9 concentration of 1500-3000ppm. In the flower bud before differentiation, need to apply more than twice. PP333 is usually used at a concentration of about 5-15 ppm. Preparation of the solution, the need to accurately measure the amount, but also with the outside temperature, plant fertility and plant type to do the concentration adjustment.

7. Black cloth or natural short days

If there are several times topping, to the last time after 3 weeks as the basis for the day shorter or the use of black cloth, so as to achieve a tonic flower bud differentiation of the critical day long. Plant flower bud differentiation, in the flower bud differentiation one week before, increase phosphorus, potash, reduce nitrogen fertilizer, night temperature maintained at 21 ℃, is conducive to the normal differentiation of flower buds.

8. Sales

The length of time for natural short days or shades is dependent on the induction period of different breeds and can be sold in about 8-10 weeks.


Poinsettia cultivation techniques

1, a poinsettia hi loose, well-drained soil, the general use of vegetable soil 3, humus 3, rot leaf soil 3, decomposed cake 1, add a small amount of slag mixed use. Yipin red hi light all year round should get plenty of light.

2, the temperature of a magenta hi warm fear of cold. Every year in late September into the room, to strengthen the ventilation, so that plants gradually adapt to the indoor environment, winter room temperature should be maintained at 15 ℃ to 20 ℃. At this time when the bracts discoloration and flower bud differentiation period, timely spraying flowers strong spirit, can promote the buds strong, petals hypertrophy, bright colors, rich flowers, flowering extended. If the room temperature below 15 ℃ below, then the flowers and leaves dysplasia. To mid-December into the flowering stage, to gradually ventilation.

3, watering fertilization, poinsettia drought is not drought, but also intolerant moisture, so watering according to the weather, basin soil and plant growth flexibility. In addition to the pot, the pots, add organic fertilizer and horseshoe tablets as base fertilizer, in the flowering season, timely application of diluted fertilizer, spraying new high-fat film fertilizer and moisture retention.

4, plastic trim, in the Ching Ming Festival will be dormant before the old pots, cut off the old roots and diseased branches, pruning after the wound applied to the wound healing film, so that the wound quickly healed, to promote the germination of new technology, in the process of growth Need to topping, in the cultivation should control the big water, especially before the fall of plant stereotypes. To be 20 to 30 cm long when the plastic for the beginning of bending, the purpose is to make the plant shape short, flower tidy, evenly distributed, improve the ornamental.

The essential point of the cultivation of poinsettia

Lighting control

In the seedlings on the basin stage, seedling roots more fragile, to reduce the light intensity. The first week, the top of the greenhouse to cover a layer of 75% of the shade net. If the seedlings are in the summer into the shed, should be appropriate to sprinkle some water on the ground to increase the air humidity. When the roots of the seedlings are not yet sound, the light is too strong will cause water loss, so that the seedlings dehydrated death. After a week of planting seedlings, appropriate increase in light, keep in the 20,000 lux for the best.

15 days or so, to observe whether the roots of plants grow to the pelvic floor, if the pelvic floor, can be topping. After the topping, the light to control within 15,000 lux, and continuous shade for two days. After the weaning of the plant leaves the wound, then remember not to be exposed. Shade two days later, moderate increase in light, kept between 15,000 to 20,000 lux. Seedlings on the basin after 45 days of growth, the plant crown about 25 cm began to pull flowers, if it is in the summer, you need to cover the black, the winter will have to close the lamp, that is, stop the night plus light to ensure that plant light time is not More than 12 hours. Bracts turn color, the light control in 15,000 lux, 50 days after the finished product.

Temperature and humidity management

The best growth temperature of poinsettia is between 18 ℃ and 28 ℃, the lowest can not be less than 12 ℃, otherwise it will cause plant growth slows down, finished product time extension. In the seedling stage, the night temperature can not be less than 15 ℃, otherwise the plant growth rate slows down, during the day should also be controlled at 32 ℃ below, and to ensure good ventilation in the greenhouse, humidity of not less than 50%. After the topping, the temperature inside the greenhouse is best kept within 30 ℃, the humidity can not be less than 65%, because if the light is too strong, the temperature is too high, too dry, it will affect the plant lateral bud germination and growth.

During the flower, the nighttime temperature must be below 24 ° C. A product of red wine phase is also called induction cycle, is the time required to turn the finished color. In the induction period, if the temperature is higher than 24 ℃, it will affect the flowering plants, flowers and growth. This stage should also pay attention to reduce the humidity, not more than 70%, or prone to gray mold and other diseases. In the induction cycle, the temperature is best controlled between 16 ℃ to 18 ℃, so that the plant color will be more vivid. Bracts after the color, the temperature control in the 15 ℃ to 30 ℃ can be between.

Water and fertilizer management

Seedling stage just on the basin, the first water only poured water, and one-time irrigation. In the process of the growth of Poinsa, as long as the watering, it must be a one-time drenched, And other plant roots grow to the pelvic floor, the first fertilization. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer in accordance with the ratio of 20: 9: 20 or 20:10:20 ratio, 1200 times diluted into water soluble fertilizer and then use. And then observe the growth of plants, when the water is missing watering, each time while watering fertilization. Plant fertilization concentration can be increased to 600 times or 700 times when the plant enters the growth period. Bracts red after two, the appropriate reduction in fertilization concentration, according to 800 times to 1000 times dilution. The pH should be maintained between 5.8 and 6.2 throughout the growth of the product.

Pest control pest control, mainly to prevent the main, spraying once a week insecticide, spray every two weeks a fungicide. Euphorbia pulchera is the most prominent pest is the whitefly, plant growth is more vigorous, whitefly from the egg to the adult to only 7 days to 10 days, faster breeding, so the focus is on prevention, once the pest situation is serious Can only destroy plants. In the spring seedling stage, growers need to pay attention to the larvae of mosquitoes, mosquito larvae in the roots of seedlings is not enough time to damage the seedlings. In this regard, you can sprinkle a layer of lime in the greenhouse, reduce greenhouse moisture, inhibit pest propagation, and spray conventional drugs.

Euphorbia is the most serious disease is gray mold, the focus is on prevention, to control greenhouse moisture, can not be too high, and keep well ventilated, once the disease, with conventional drugs. Production process also need to pay attention to is to ensure that the growth between the plant space, do not let the leaves touch each other, if too crowded, it will lead to plant leggy.